Annotated Bibliography One


Researching Ray Cude’s panel of The AIDS Quilt was an interesting experience for me. Before this project, my knowledge of the HIV/AIDS epidemic was very limited. I knew that it was mostly associated with gay men and by the time of the late 1980’s and 1990’s it had grown into an epidemic, striking fear into many people. However, there was much more to it than that, which meant I had a lot to learn. In researching Ray Cude’s panel of The Quilt, I was able to learn more about the history of HIV/AIDS in the United States.

I was initially drawn to Ray Cude’s panel because of the musical imagery and the Christian symbols depicted in the panel. I was raised in the Christian faith and I play musical instruments. Both are a large part of my life, so I could relate to the images on Cude’s panel. The design and layout of this panel also intrigued me. One of the first things I noticed was that the panel is split into two halves, an upper and a lower half. I asked myself “Why would the creators of the panel to do this?” The two halves are very distinct in style and use of space. On a closer look at the panel two different names can be seen, one for each half. In the bottom half the name “Ray Cude” is seen and in the top half the name “Tommy Ray” is seen. I later found out that the top half was created by Cude’s younger brother and his wife. “Tommy Ray” was a nickname for Cude. The bottom half was created by a different set of friends and family. This got my attention and I was able to become interested in learning more about Cude’s life. This bibliography represents the research I have conducted so far in my project to better understand the history of the HIV/AIDS epidemic in the United States.

Lower Half of Ray Cude’s Panel


Altman, Dennis. “Globalization, political economy, and HIV/AIDS.” Melbourne: La Trobe University Press, 1999.

This source is an essay written by Australian academic and gay rights activist Dennis Altman on the history and spread of HIV/AIDS around the world. Altman used scientific studies on the globalization of AIDS to support his claim that a new approach to stopping the pandemic needed to be taken. The purpose of the essay is to convince the reader that the HIV/AIDS pandemic was a global crisis and needed to be addressed. The intended audience is other academics in the field of global politics or people interested in the impact of AIDS on the world. This essay would be useful for people interested in the global political climate of HIV/AIDS or for people looking for a new approach to recognizing the pandemic.

This source connected with the panel I was researching because it addressed the pandemic of AIDS in the world. The AIDS Quilt now includes panels from around the globe, recognizing the crisis of AIDS around the globe. Altman’s essay uses the AIDS crisis as a case study of globalization. Different countries’s responses to the crisis were influenced by how they viewed the disease. For example, “… in explaining the different rates of infection in various countries, some will stress patterns of sexual behavior, while others stress the importance of mobility and migration (Altman).” Overall, I was able to use Altman’s article to gain a better understanding of the global conception of AIDS and its influences.


Lateef, Yasir. “The NAMES Project Foundation.” The Names Project, Accessed 15 February 2018.

This source is a page from The NAMES Project Foundation’s official website “About” page, stating the non-profit organization’s mission is “To preserve, care for, and use the AIDS Memorial Quilt to foster healing, heighten awareness, and inspire action in the struggle against HIV and AIDS (The NAMES Project Foundation).” The page details the founding of the organization by Cleve Jones and his conception of The Quilt in 1985, as well as describing the creation of a panel, and displays of The Quilt around the world. The page’s purpose is to inform people of the creation and goals of The NAMES Project Foundation. Reader’s of this page are interested in The NAMES Project Foundation and The Quilt itself, wanting to learn more about the organization’s history and why it was formed. People who read this page, like myself, may use the information in a research project about the organization or may be wanting to create a panel to memorialize a loved one.

This source is directly related to the panel of The Quilt I am researching because it describes the organization that is responsible for storing and maintaining The Quilt. This source helped me understand why The Quilt was created and how it has impacted many peoples’s lives. I also learned why a quilt, specifically, was chosen to be the memorial. Cleve Jones led a march in San Francisco in 1985 to memorialize people affected by AIDS, which culminated with the posting of names on the Federal Building. To Jones, this looked like a patchwork quilt, thus the conception of The Quilt was born.

Image result for aids quilt
Display of The Quilt on the National Mall 1987


Reed, Lewis. “Halloween Parade.” Lou Reed. Youtube. 29 October 2015. Accessed 17 February 2018.

This source is a live performance of a song, written by Lewis Reed (AKA Lou Reed), dedicated to people who have died of AIDS. Before he begins the song, Reed says “This next song is about a parade we have in Greenwich Village in NY, where a lot of people are dying of AIDS. So this is a song about AIDS called ‘Halloween Parade.’ (Reed)” The purpose of this song is to remember people who have died of AIDS and to raise awareness of the seriousness of the epidemic. The intended audience is people who have been affected by AIDS or people who may not know a lot about AIDS. Listeners of this song could use this song to spread awareness of the AIDS epidemic or even for political purposes, such as providing healthcare options for the treatment of the disease.

I included this song as the final piece of my Primary Source Description on Ray Cude’s panel. Cude was a musician, playing in a number of local bands for 25 years. He also died, too soon, of AIDS. Ray is memorialized on The AIDS Quilt similarly to how Reed memorializes characters in this song. It seemed fitting to include a song memorializing people who have died of AIDS in my project about a quilt that memorializes people who died of AIDS.


Royles, Dan. “AIDS and AIDS Activism.” Encyclopedia of Greater Philadelphia, University of Pennsylvania Press, 2012, Accessed 16 February 2018.

This source is an essay written by Dan Royles on the history of AIDS and social activism in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Royles begins the essay with a description of the rapidly increasing rate of AIDS cases, much of which were in environments with a large number of intravenous drug-users. He then goes on to describe social activist groups, such as ACT UP, and their political role in the AIDS epidemic. Royle’s purpose for the essay is to inform people of Philadelphia’s history of AIDS and its role in the political movement to recognize the disease as a public health crisis. The intended audience is people who are interested in, specifically, Philadelphia’s history of AIDS or people who may not know much about the disease. Readers could use this as a source in a research project on the history of AIDS or for raising awareness of the still-threatening disease today.

Although Ray Cude is not from Philadelphia (he lived in California), social activism on the AIDS epidemic is relevant to Cude. A loved one of Cude sent a letter to The NAMES Project Foundation which mentioned the public’s “ignorance” of the disease (Soto). This suggests that Cude may have engaged in social activism on the awareness of AIDS. Whether or not Cude was an activist, social activism is a large piece of the history of the AIDS epidemic as a whole.

ACT UP Demonstration Poster (John J. Wilcox LGBT Archives of Philadelphia)


Soto, Louise. Letter to Cynthia.

This source is a letter written by Louise Soto, a family member or friend of Ray Cude’s, and addressed to Cynthia (Last name is unknown). The letter thanked Cynthia for her hard work and effort to raise awareness of HIV/AIDS. Soto’s main purpose was to show appreciation of the recipient and also show her support of the activist movement for HIV/AIDS. The intended audience was Cynthia (most likely a worker at The NAMES Project Foundation) and possibly others at The NAMES Project Foundation. The reader was probably encouraged to continue their work as an activist in raising awareness of HIV/AIDS.

I included this source in my Primary Source Description on Ray Cude’s panel because it is directly related to his panel. This letter was stored at The NAMES Project Foundation’s headquarters in Atlanta along with Cude’s panel. Louise Soto is one of several family members/friends listed on Cude’s panel. Her name is included twice on the panel, one of which is printed in large bold letters with a pearl necklace sewn around her name. She was evidently important to Cude, probably his sister. Her letter includes her support of activism on the awareness of AIDS, which suggests Cude’s support as well.


“To Thine Own Self Be True.” Literary Devices, Accessed on 15 February 2018.

This source is a page from a website that helps readers understand different literacy devices that authors may employ; in this case the page explains what is meant by the phrase “To thine own self be true. (Shakespeare).” The page points out that this phrase is a quote from Shakespeare’s play Hamlet and gives the likely meaning of the phrase in the play and the connotation of the phrase in today’s world. The purpose of the page is to inform people of the meaning of the phrase. The intended audience is people who want to know the origin of the phrase and what it really means. People who read this page may cite it in a research paper on the influence Shakespeare has on today’s world.

I used this source because the phrase “To thine own self be true” is included on Ray Cude’s panel in large print. Understanding the origins and meaning of this phrase would help me to better understand Ray Cude’s character, as depicted by his panel. According to, the phrase, in today’s connotation, usually means a person should be honest with themselves and determined in their work. This helped with determining Cude’s character.

Lower Half of Ray Cude’s Panel



#Unit 1, #Ray Cude Panel

Category: Unit 1 Annotated Bibliography